When starting a vegetable garden, you need to consider what kinds of plants you want to grow, and then which varieties will work for you. Caring for a vegetable garden takes some work, but it is well worth the rewards you can reap. Proper vegetable garden care can produce beautiful and healthy plants. By following a few simple steps, you will get the most out of your vegetable garden. Even if you live in an area with less than ideal growing conditions, it can be done, especially with our Tucker’s Pride® by Lumz® Anywhere Garden.
We’ve chosen some of the most popular vegetables and provided the essential information you need for planting and maintaining them. Click on a link below to see how to grow your favorite veggies.
Asparagus is a member of the lily family and it is not an easy vegetable to grow. Patience is a virtue with asparagus. It is just about impossible to grow from seed so I would advise you purchase 1-year-old asparagus crowns, which are the roots of the plant. These are planted in a trench with the roots spread out over mounded soil. The trench is gradually filled in as the plants grow.
It takes about four years for asparagus plants to mature enough for harvesting – if you start from seed. Prior to that asparagus plants should be allowed to grow and feed themselves.
PROPAGATION / SOWING:
Sow indoors 8 weeks before last frost, 1/4″ deep at 25 degrees C (77 degrees F). Germination will occur in 10-14 days. Sow outdoors, 3 weeks before last frost, 1/4-1/2″ deep and 1″ apart. Thin or space asparagus plants to 18″ apart in trenches 8-12″ deep. As the asparagus seedlings grow, fill the trench back in.
Basil, calendula, parsley, tomato.
CARE & GROWING:
Choose a sunny location with a fertile, deep, well drained soil. Soil pH should be between 6.5-6.7. Asparagus is a heavy feeder and needs regular fertilizing with well rotted manure, compost or a well balanced synthetic fertilizer worked in the top surface of the soil. Use straw mulch to control weeds and hold moisture.
Asparagus plants from seeds will take 4 years before you can harvest spring spears. In early spring, cut or snap asparagus spears when they are 6-8″ high, before the heads separate.
Growing strong healthy asparagus plants or resistant cultivars helps prevent the onset of Rust disease.
No garden is complete without bush beans. There are many varieties of bush beans to choose from and every gardener is sure to find one to suit their tastes. Bush beans do well in almost any garden as they are not too fussy about soil.
To ensure the best flavor, bush beans should be picked while still slender and no inner bean is well developed. For fresh bush beans all summer, plant every two weeks and pick frequently.
PROPAGATION / SOWING OF BUSH BEANS:
Direct seed bush beans after risk of frost when soil warms to 18-24°C (65-75°F). Sow bush beans 1″ deep and 2″ apart in rows 18″ (bush beans) to 24″ apart (shell beans). Reseed until mid summer for a constant supply all season long. If using untreated bush beans seed, plant thicker and thin to desired density. Use Garden Inoculant at the time of planting to help boost soil fertility*.
COMPANION PLANTING OF BUSH BEANS:
Bush beans are excellent grown with most vegetables except the onion family, basil, fennel, kohlrabi.
CARE & GROWING OF BUSH BEANS:
Both bush bean types require a full sun location, soil pH of 6.5-7.5, and well drained soil. Good air circulation around bush bean plants is essential, especially for late shelling or dry type beans, as they are very susceptible to fungal diseases which prevail later in the season. Bush beans are light feeders; compost or well rotted manures worked into the soil at the time of planting is sufficient.
HARVESTING OF BUSH BEANS:
Use maturity days as an indicator. Harvest once the bush beans are smooth, firm and crisp. Keep bush beans constantly picked to ensure a fresh supply. Bean formation in the pod is a sure sign of over-maturity. Dry & Shell Beans: Harvest when the bush beans pods are completely dry and brittle. Cut or pull pods from bush bean plants and shell the beans. Store beans in an air tight container in a cool dry spot. For fresh eating of horticultural or shell beans, harvest when bean formation starts to take place within the pod.
* Inoculant refers to a type of bacteria (Rhizobia bacteria) that grows on the roots of legumes (beans, peas, clover, alfalfa) to help produce nitrogen. Simply mix the inoculant in a bag with the seed until the seed is coated. Sow seeds and harvest an improved yield.
Brussels sprouts resemble miniature heads of cabbage, but are actually buds that grow in the angle between the leaf bases and the stem. Depending on the variety of brussels sprouts plant, the plant can grow to three feet in height and produce sprouts almost two inches in diameter. Brussels sprouts colour ranges from light green through to dark green and red.
Brussels sprouts are an excellent source of vitamins A, B, C, E, calcium, potassium, and sulfur. Brussels sprouts are also high in carbohydrates and dietary fiber. They are best after the first frost when quickly steamed, boiled, or stir-fried. Brussels sprouts can be served alone or with a sauce, but they are not good to eat raw.
PROPAGATION / SOWING OF BRUSSELS SPROUTS:
Plant brussels sprouts seeds ¼-½” deep. Transplant or thin small plants to 15-18” apart in rows 32-36” apart. Brussels sprouts transplants can be started in April for May planting. Transplant after 4-6 weeks. Use a starter fertilizer, soaking the root ball thoroughly prior to transplanting. Direct seed brussels sprouts in late spring, as seedlings can tolerate a light frost. Brussels Sprouts can be direct seeded up until mid-late June for a continuous harvest. Soil temperature should be 21-26°C (70-80°F) for optimal germination in 4-7 days.
CARE & GROWING OF BRUSSELS SPROUTS:
Brussels Sprouts prefers full sun, but will tolerate part shade. Prepare a rich, loose soil that holds moisture well and has a pH level of 6.0-6.5. Brussels Sprout is a heavy feeder and will also benefit from applications of boron, calcium and magnesium, particularly during the early stages of growth.
HARVESTING OF BRUSSELS SPROUTS:
To encourage development of the upper sprouts, pinch out the growing tip of the brussels sprouts plant in late summer. Harvest sprouts as needed from the bottom of the stalk when they are about 1-1½” in diameter. The brussels sprouts will develop a sweeter flavour after a few light frosts.
No garden should be without carrots. Sow carrot seeds early in spring as soon as the ground is workable. Carrot seeds need to be kept evenly moist as they are slow to germinate, sometimes taking several weeks.
Carrots have their best flavor when they are deeply colored and fully matured. Harvesting doesn’t have to be done all at once, as carrots do very well when left in the ground. Carrots are very high in vitamin A and good raw or cooked.
PROPAGATION / SOWING OF CARROTS:
Sow carrot seeds ¼-½“ deep. Carrots seed takes 14-21 days to germinate. Planting a few radish seeds helps to loosen the soil and mark the rows for slow emerging carrot seeds. Thin carrot plants to at least 1” apart in rows spaced 18-24” apart. Sow carrots as soon as ground can be worked. Even moisture and soil temperature, 18-24°C (65-75°F) is essential for good carrot germination.
COMPANION PLANTING OF CARROTS:
Bean, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, chive, leaf lettuce, leek, onion, pea, pepper, radish, tomato.
CARE & GROWING OF CARROTS:
Carrots are best grown in full sun but will tolerate light shading. Choose deeply-worked, stone free soil with a pH of 6.5. Chantenay type carrots are suitable for shallow or heavy soils. Raised beds or rows are recommended. Carrots are light to moderate feeders. Avoid using fresh animal and green manures at the time of planting. Moisture is required for good carrot root formation.
HARVESTING OF CARROTS:
Carrots can be harvested throughout their growth cycle. If you thin your carrots out in stages, you will enjoy an abundance of baby carrots that are great in salads.
Celery is a cool-weather crop and prefers a rich, moist but well-drained, deeply prepared soil with a pH of 6.0 to 6.5. Ensure moisture retention by adding plenty of compost or well-cured manure. Prepare the celery row a week or two before setting the plants.
The most common mistake with celery is not allowing enough time for growing. About a minimum of 90 days are required to grow good celery plants. Celery seed is small and germinates slowly. Start seeds for transplanting several weeks before you expect to plant celery in your garden.
PROPAGATION / SOWING:
Start celery indoors 10 weeks before last frost. Soak celery seed for 24 hours, scatter seeds on soil mix and lightly cover with 1/8” of soil, as light is needed for germination along with a soil temperature of 21°C (70°F) and constant moisture. Celery will take 7-14 days to germinate. When seedlings are about 1“ tall, transplant to individual pots. Transplant celery after all risk of frost, spacing about 6-9“ apart in rows 24-32” apart.
Everything expect carrot, parsley, dill and parsnip.
CARE & GROWING:
Full sun required. Celery is a heavy feeder and grows best in soil rich in organic matter with a pH of 6.5. Before planting add plenty of compost and rotted manure. Celery has a shallow root system. To conserve moisture and cut back on weeds, mulch around the plants and water during dry spells. Lack of boron may cause stem cracking. Blanching is not necessary but it does improve flavour.
Young celery stalks on the outside of the plant can be harvested anytime. The entire celery plant is harvested once a desirable size is reached, remembering celery has a long maturity of 100-120 days. For best flavour and longer storage, water celery plants the day before harvest.
Cucumbers are best grown grouped into 3 or 4 plants in a single hill. If planted in rich soil, cucumbers will grow very quickly. Unless you plan on eating lots of cucumbers, plant sparingly as one hill will produce well. If space is limited select a cucumber variety that will climb well and use a trellis.
Pick cucumbers while young and tender to avoid any bitterness. Cucumbers are used mainly in salads and many varieties of pickles.
PROPAGATION / SOWING OF CUCUMBERS:
Sow cucumbers indoors 3-4 weeks prior to last frost or direct seed after all risk of frost. For indoor planting use 2 inch square jiffy strip pots and plant 1-2 seeds per square; thin to ensure one cucumber plant per pot. Plant cucumber seeds ½-1” deep, transplant or space plants 6” apart in rows 4-6” apart. Cucumber Plants are tender, so soil should be warm, 18-24°C (65-75°F) for germination to begin. If growing on a trellis, space plants 18” apart. Plant 3 to 4 cucumber plants per hill for effective pollination.
COMPANION PLANTING OF CUCUMBERS:
Bush bean, cabbage family, corn, dill, eggplant, lettuce, radish, pea, tomato are all good companions for cucumbers.
CARE & GROWING OF CUCUMBERS:
Cucumbers require full sun. As they are heavy feeders, an application of compost or well rotted manure worked into the planting area will help. Regular applications of a complete soluble fertilizer during the growing season is beneficial. Cucumber plants should not be allowed to wilt. Make sure cucumbers are well watered before transplanting. Spread a mulch around plants before they start to vine, to cut down on weeds and conserve moisture. The mulch will also help to keep the fruit clean.
HARVESTING OF CUCUMBERS:
Pick slicing cucumbers when they reach 6-8” long; pickling cucumbers at 3-5”. Keep mature cucumbers picked off the vines to encourage a longer, abundant yield. Harvest cucumbers for pickling early in the morning.
Eggplant is a member of the Solanaceae family which includes tomatoes, peppers, ground cherries and potatoes. Eggplant is very sensitive to cold weather and should be started indoors long before planting in the garden. Eggplant require a long warm season for best yields.
Eggplant should be planted in full sun and requires ample water and fertile soil with lots of organic matter. Eggplants are easily injured by frost and will not do well with long periods of cool weather. Eggplants are like tomatoes, except that eggplants like warmer conditions.
PROPAGATION / SOWING OF EGGPLANT:
Eggplant seeds must be started indoors 8-10 weeks prior to last frost. Sow seeds ¼” deep and provide a soil temperature of 24-27°C (75-80°F). Even moisture is essential while the eggplant seed is germinating. Germination is slow (up to 2 weeks). Gradually harden off seedlings, but do not allow temperature to go below 15°C (60°F). Transplant 18” apart in beds or rows 20-30” apart.
COMPANION PLANTING OF EGGPLANT:
Bush bean, pea, pepper, potato
CARE & GROWING OF EGGPLANT:
Heat loving eggplant require a full sun and sheltered area. Black paper or plastic mulch will help draw heat to the soil and encourage an early maturity. It will also help to conserve moisture and keep weeds down. Eggplants are moderate feeders and do well in very fertile soil with a pH level of 5.5 to 6.8. Apply compost and well rotted manure along with bonemeal.
HARVESTING OF EGGPLANT:
Harvest eggplant anytime after the fruit reaches half of their size. Harvesting eggplant early prevents fruit from becoming too seedy and will encourage more production and eggplant yield.
EGGPLANT PESTS & DISEASES:
Colorado potato beetles love eggplant, even more so than potatoes and they can cause serious damage to this eggplants. Rotenone dust and/or hand picking insects and egg masses (orange masses on the under sides of the leaves) will keep damage to eggplants to a minimum.
Garlic is grown from the individual cloves. Each clove will produce one plant with a single bulb. Growing garlic is fairly easy – much easier than most people may think. When planting garlic, choose a garden site that gets plenty of sun and where the soil is not too wet. Garlic cloves should be planted individually, upright. Garlic is a great plant for companion planting and grows well with other flowers and vegetables.
PROPAGATION / SOWING OF GARLIC:
Spring garlic should be planted as soon as the ground can be worked, so that the garlic bulbs can set out roots early. Each bulb consists of several cloves, break individual garlic cloves apart from the bulb and plant with the flat root end down. Plant garlic cloves 3” apart, 2” deep with 12-18” row spacing.
COMPANION PLANTING OF GARLIC:
Most vegetables, except for beans and peas grow well with garlic.
CARE & GROWING OF GARLIC:
Garlic prefers a full sunny location with a soil pH of 6.0-6.5. Garlic is a light feeder and requires a well prepared, well drained soil. Prior to planting garlic, incorporate some compost. After planting garlic, mulch between the rows, as the shallow roots of this crop do not compete well with weeds. Mulching will also help to conserve moisture. During mid season growth, garlic plants benefit from a nitrogen side dressing, like partially rotted manure, bloodmeal, or a drink of compost tea. For hard neck or fall garlic, be sure to cut off the scape or twisted flower stalk. This will send more energy into producing the bulb.
HARVESTING OF GARLIC:
Harvest garlic in late summer or when 75% of the leaves have turned brown. Lift garlic bulbs during dry weather. Cure for 10-14 days in a warm, dark, dry area. After curing garlic, clean roots and cut off the dead foliage. To make garlic braids, the garlic bulbs must be dug and braided while the foliage is still green. Will store for 6-8 months in a dry, cool place.
Onion root maggots can be a problem with garlic. These maggots of tiny flies lay eggs in soil around developing garlic cloves. The maggots then find the garlic and tunnel inside. Onion maggots thrive in alkaline soil. The solution is to grow garlic in raised beds or mounds if planting amongst other vegetables.
Leaf and Romaine Lettuce grows best in a well-worked soil that is not to wet. This can sometimes be difficult to achieve when the ground is very moist in the early part of the season. Lettuce seed won’t germinate when soil and air are hot, so a good way to start would be starting lettuce in hot beds and then transplanted outside.
Use these lettuce thinnings in the first spring salad. Successive plantings will ensure lettuce through the entire season. Be sure to keep lettuce bed evenly moist and harvest regularly to keep lettuce plants from bolting and becoming bitter.
PROPAGATION / SOWING OF LEAF LETTUCE:
Direct seed head lettuce in early spring, as seed will germinate between 40-80°F. Sowing thinly ¼” and 1” apart.
Leaf lettuce types – 6” apart with 12” rows; Iceberg lettuce – 12” apart with 18” row spacing; Romaine lettuce – 8-10” apart with 12-16” rows Butterhead/Batavia lettuce – 10-12” apart with 12” row spacing. Start lettuce transplants indoors 4-6 weeks before last frost date for transplants. Make succession plantings every 1-2 weeks to ensure a constant harvest.
COMPANION PLANTING FOR LEAF LETTUCE:
Head Lettuce does well with most vegetables, carrot, garlic, onion and radish make the best companions.
CARE & GROWING LEAF LETTUCE:
Choose an area with full sun to partial shade and a soil pH of 6.2-6.8. Lettuce is a heavy feeder and prefers a rich, well cultivated soil with good drainage. Some success can be expected even in poor soils using the loose-leaf lettuce types. Add plenty of compost or well rotted manure prior to planting lettuce. lettuce benefits from regular feedings with a nitrogen rich fertilizer. Mulching is useful to keep soil cool and reduce weeds.
HARVESTING LEAF LETTUCE:
Harvest lettuce early in the morning after dew is evaporated. Looseleaf types can be picked as soon as leaves are large enough to eat.
Onions grow best in rich soil that drains well. But, onions will also grow in sandy or clay soils that have been built up with organic material.
Onion seed should be planted as soon as the soil can be worked, depending on spring weather. onions can be planted until mid June – depending on your climate. Since onion seedlings are fairly tolerant to cold, they survive in the soil in cold weather as long as the ground does not freeze. I have found that planting onions in slightly raised rows has produced good results with nice sized bulbs.
PROPAGATION / SOWING:
Plant onion seed as soon as the soil can be worked in the spring. Onion seed germinates in a wide range of soil temperature, 18-29°C (65-85°F). Sow and cover onion seed with ½” of soil and keep moist. Onions can be started indoors 6-8 weeks prior to planting in the spring. Thin or transplant to 3-4” apart in rows 18-24” apart. To plant onion sets, simply press sets into the soil about 2” apart. Later thin to about 4-6” apart to allow bulbs to mature. Bunching onions can be left at 1-1½” apart. Space shallots 1” apart in rows 4” apart.
Onions do well with beets, cabbage family, carrot, kohlrabi, lettuce, parsnip, pepper, spinach, strawberry, tomato, turnip.
CARE & GROWING:
Onions benefit from full sun, a soil pH of 6.0-7.5 and a well drained soil with plenty of compost or well rotted manure added. Feed onions with a complete balanced fertilizer during the growing season, particularly when the bulbs start to form.
Bunching onions are used when young and green. To harvest storage onions: when onion tops begin to fall over, turn brown and wither, it is time to harvest. Tipping bulbs over to break some of the roots will speed drying. Pull and place onions in dry, warm airy location out of direct sun for up to 3 weeks to cure. After curing process is complete, store in cool, dry location. The drier the onions, the better they store.
ONION PESTS & DISEASES:
Storage rot may be the result of diseases encountered during the growing season. Make sure onions are thoroughly cured before storing. Onion maggots are common and can be a serious problem. Onion maggots are the result of onion flies laying eggs on the onion plant or soil at the base of the onions. Removal of all onions and culls after the onions have been harvested leaves no food for the onion maggots to live on over the winter and early spring. Use row covers early in the growth cycle to prevent flies from depositing eggs on young stems and soil.
If you discover onion maggots, remove infected plants and discard in garbage – not in the compost or near the garden. One or two infected onion plants does not mean all is lost, but you must watch carefully and remove any plants with wilting or discolored culls. If you catch them early enough, you may be able to save a good part of your harvest. It is a good practice to remove any onion next to an infected onion until and so on until only good onions remain (yes, you will lose a few good onions, but this is better than losing all of them) – this will help insure you do not leave infected onions in the ground allowing the onion maggots to move on and infect more of your onion crops. Before storage, inspect onions carefully for signs of rot and infestation as the maggots will continue to eat the onion resulting in storage rot. Plant onions (and garlic or related plants) in a completely different area of your garden the following season.
If there is one vegetable I remember most growing up, it is peas. Nothing beats picking some pea pods and tasting the fresh sweetness. Peas can be started as soon as the last major frost has passed. There are many varieties: all peas prefer a soil that is well-drained with limestone or wood ashes.
Pick peas on a regular basis to encourage more growth and a better harvest. Try not to get the plant wet when watering, instead, use a weeper hose or low level watering device. Harvest peas while young for the sweetest flavor. Peas retain their flavor best when frozen much better than when they are canned.
PROPAGATION / SOWING:
As peas can prefer cool growing conditions and will tolerate light frosts, they may be planted as soon as the ground can be worked and will germinate in a wide range of soil temperatures, 4-24°C (40-75°F). Sow pea seed 1 to 1½” deep, 1-2 inches apart in double rows spaced 3-6” apart, 24” between the next double row. Pea plants will tolerate crowding so may be spaced 2” apart. All peas, including dwarf types, are natural climbers, will be more productive, and not as susceptible to rot, if given some support or planted along a fence or trellis. Pea seed is available in both treated and untreated; if using untreated pea seeds, avoid planting in cold, wet, poorly aerated soils, as you risk loosing the seed to rot.
Peas do well with Carrot, celery, corn, cucumber, eggplant, early potato, radish, spinach, pepper, turnip.
CARE & GROWING:
Peas prefer full sun to partial shade with a soil pH of 6.0-7.0. and require a well-drained, rich and sandy soil. Work organic matter, including rotted manure or compost into the soil for best results. An application of Garden Inoculant, either to the soil or to the pea seeds themselves before planting, can be very beneficial. Even soil moisture is essential especially during flowering and pod set. Use mulch to conserve moisture and keep weeds down around your peas.
For best tasting peas, harvest as pods become plump, but are still young and tender. Pick peas regularly to promote continued production. When you pick, is partially personal preference. If you prefer small, sweet peas, pick early. Experiment until you find which size and flavour you prefer.
Peppers are one of the most versatile vegetables in the garden and will grow in many areas, including northern Canada. Sow pepper seeds indoors or in hot beds in very early spring for good germination, and then keep the seedlings warm. Transplant peppers after all risk of frost is past. Mulching well help to keep the ground moist and produce quality peppers.
Harvest when peppers have a high gloss as green bells or wait for maturity when they are red and sweet. Peppers have very high levels of Vitamin C and also contain Vitamin A. Great raw or in a variety of cooked dishes, salads and salsa.
PROPAGATION / SOWING OF PEPPERS:
Peppers require a long, warm growing season. Pepper seed should be started indoors in March or 8 weeks prior to transplanting. To start pepper seed indoors, sow 2-3 seeds ¼” deep, into 1×1” cells and provide constant moisture and a soil temperature of 26-29°C (80-85°F). After germination (1-2 weeks), thin pepper seedlings to one per cell. Once seedlings develop 2-3 true leaves, transplant into larger containers, 2×2” or 3×3”. At transplanting time, set pepper transplants 18” apart in rows 30” apart.
COMPANION PLANTING FOR PEPPERS:
Peppers do well with carrots, onions, parsnip, peas and basil.
CARE & GROWING OF PEPPERS:
Peppers prefer sheltered, full sun area with a soil pH of 6.0-6.8. Peppers are moderate feeders and require plenty of compost and well rotted manure mixed into the soil prior to planting. Fertilize sparingly until pepper plants start to set fruit. Too much nitrogen causes an excess of foliage and dropping of flower buds. Provide even moisture, particularly during flowering and fruit set on pepper plants. Use black plastic or paper mulch to attract heat, hold water and prevent weeds.
Begin harvest when peppers reach a useable size. Cut peppers rather than pull from branch.
Blossoms will drop when temperature falls below 60°F (15°C) or goes above 80°F (27°C). Blossom End Rot Pepper fruits blacken and decay at the blossom end due to a calcium deficiency. Poor Fruit Set usually due to cold weather. Excessive nitrogen fertilizer during early growth may also delay fruit set.
Pole beans are among the few vegetables that add a sense of height to the garden. Pole beans can climb up stakes or fence supports, or even scale corn stalks. If growing space is limited, pole beans are the answer. While pole beans are planted later than snap beans, pole beans yield over a longer period of time and frequent picking encourages more production. Pole beans rarely need any assistance once they’ve started.
PROPAGATION / SOWING OF POLE BEANS:
Plant pole beans 2” deep on slight hills around poles or teepees spaced at 16” apart. Grow 4-8 seeds on each hill. Space pole beans 3” apart if growing on a fence. Sow after all danger of frost is over and the soil is warm, 18°C (65°F).
COMPANION PLANTING OF POLE BEANS:
Pole beans do well with carrot, corn, chard, pea, potato, eggplant. Avoid cabbage & onion family.
CARE & GROWING OF POLE BEANS:
Pole beans prefer an area with full sun and a rich, deeply worked soil with a pH level of 6.5. Pole beans are light feeders. The poles, teepees or a trellis should be erected after 2-4 leaves have developed. Hoe to kill weeds. A mulch of compost, or straw is beneficial to control weeds and hold moisture. Keep the plants well watered in dry weather, especially if they are grown on an upright trellis or poles against a shed or house where soil tends to dry out.
HARVESTING OF POLE BEANS:
Pick young, full size pods when smooth and crisp. Pole beans pods are over mature once the beans start to form. Harvest pole beans regularly for a constant supply. Scarlet Runner Pole beans will produce abundant, gorgeous red flowers if the beans are continually picked.
Radish is another perfect vegetable for kids. They are fast-growing, colorful, like to be watered and are easy to harvest – not many kids like to eat them though.
Radishes do not like hot, dry weather. Radishes also grow very fast and need a lot of moisture. Their flavor will be “hotter” in hot weather and milder in cool Unless you consume huge amounts of radishes, there is no need to dedicate a specific spot in the garden to radishes. Use radishes to mark the start and ends of other rows of plants. plant at different times and grow radishes throughout the garden and you will have a steady supply all season. Radishes are used mainly in salads and as a garnish.
PROPAGATION / SOWING OF RADISH:
Begin sowing radish as soon as the ground can be worked. Radish does best in the spring and fall when the soil is cool, 4-18°C (45-65°F) and the days are short. Summer production of radish may not be as uniform. Sow radish ½” apart and ¼” deep in rows 12-18” apart. Thin radishes to approx. 35 seeds/ft. Make successive sowings every 5-7 days to keep a constant supply of fresh radish all season.
COMPANION PLANTING OF RADISH:
Lettuce, bean, beet, carrot, parsnip, pea, spinach. Radish improves the flavour of lettuce.
CARE & GROWING OF RADISH:
Radish requires full sun location, with a pH of 6.0-7.0. Radishes are extremely light feeders; no special soil preparation is required. Sufficient water is essential as the faster the radish grows, the better the flavour. Plant radish in rows with slow germinating seeds like carrots, parsnip and beets to help break the soil and aid in the germination of the slower seeds.
HARVESTING OF RADISH:
Harvest radishes as soon as roots reach a desired size, 20-25 days.
RADISH PESTS & DISEASES:
Radishes may be attacked by flea beetles, small, shiny, hopping insects that leave small holes in the leaves. Avoid planting too early, use row covers or Rotenone dust to control insects. Also, planting with taller growing companions will help to hide the plants from insects.
Squash plants, which includes zucchini, are best known for the ease at which they can be grown, making any novice gardener look like a pro. Squash prefer soil with lots of organic matter such as aged manure or compost. Harvest squash and zucchini while they are young and still shiny, and before their seeds are well-developed. The many varieties of squash are used in everything from appetizers to desserts. Squash are excellent sauteed or steamed and when used in casseroles, breads or cakes.
PROPAGATION / SOWING OF SQUASH:
Plant squash after all danger of frost has past or when the soil has warmed to 21-27°C (70-80°F) as seed will not germinate in cool soil. For early plantings, use floating row covers to raise soil temperature, increase early growth and protect tender plants from wind injury. Sow summer squash 1” deep, 6” apart, thinning to 12” apart in rows 36-48” apart. Sow winter or vining squash similarly, using a spacing of 24-36” between plants with 48-60” row spacing.
COMPANION PLANTING OF SQUASH:
Squash do well with celery, corn, onion, radish.
CARE & GROWING OF SQUASH:
Squash prefer full sun and a soil pH of 5.5-6.5. Squash are moderate feeders; mix plenty of organic matter into soil as squash prefers a rich loamy soil of good fertility and moisture retention. Even and sufficient soil moisture is essential. Squash benefits from mild feedings with a fertilizer high in phosphorous to initiate fruit formation.
HARVESTING OF SQUASH:
Harvest summer squash when they are 4-8” long and when their skin is still shiny. Winter squash can be cut later in the summer or early fall before frost, or when the skin is hard enough so that you can not cut it with your finger nail. Simply cut from the vine leaving 4-6” of stem attached to the fruit. Store in a cool, dry area.
Tomatoes are the champion of the garden, tomato are one of the most frequently judged vegetables in any garden. Tomatoes are also the number one vegetable to be entered into contests. For the earliest tomatoes, start growing tomato plants indoors and transplant to the garden after there is no longer a danger of frost.
Place individual tomato plants, including roots and dirt, in watered holes. Garden soil should be enriched with compost or aged manure. Use mulch while the tomato plants are still only a few feet tall to ensure moisture retention. For best results with your tomato plants, be sure to use a fertilizer with a high calcium content. This well help prevent blossom-end rot. Do not allow moisture levels to fluctuate too much – this will help prevent cracking. Water directly onto the soil, not the plant.
PROPAGATION / SOWING OF TOMATOES:
Tomatoes are tender plants and are very susceptible to frost damage. Start seeds indoors 6-8 weeks before the last frost date in your area. Sow 2-3 tomato seeds in 1×1” cells and thin to 1 plant after germination. Cover tomato seeds with ¼” soil and provide a constant soil temperature of 21-26°C (70-80°F). Once tomato plants are up, a growing light is necessary or seedlings will become tall and spindly. After tomato plants develop 1-2 sets of true leaves, transplant into 3×3” or 4×4” pots. Use a water soluble fertilizer every two weeks starting at half strength and increasing to full strength over 6 weeks. Tomato Seedlings benefit from waterings with Epsom salts, use 1 Tbsp of Epsom salts per gallon. Transplant tomatoes after all danger of frost has passed. When transplanting , space 24-36” apart with rows at least 36-48” apart.
COMPANION PLANTING OF TOMATOES:
Tomatoes do well with asparagus, basil, bush bean, cabbage family, carrot, celery, chive, cucumber, garlic, lettuce, onion, pepper.
CARE & GROWING OF TOMATOES:
Tomatoes prefer a full sun location, preferably with good air circulation. Soil pH of 6.0-6.5. Tomatoes are heavy feeders and prefer a warm, well drained soil of good fertility and cultivation. Add plenty of compost and well rotted manure prior to planting tomatoes. Feed regularly during the growing season with a compost tea or well balanced fertilizer. Avoid excessive nitrogen, particularly before fruit set. Provide even moisture during fruit set and development. Excessive watering can increase tomato size but decrease flavor. Use Epsom salts to improve growth, mix 2 Tbsp/gallon of water and feed to plants every other watering.
HARVESTING OF TOMATOES:
Pick tomatoes when fruit is firm and turning red. Overripe tomatoes rot quickly.
TOMATO PESTS & DISEASES:
Protect tomatoes from cutworms by using protective collars around the plant stem or place cornmeal around plant base. Tomato blossom end rot (a brownish-black, sunken dead area that forms on the bottom of the fruit) is a condition caused by a calcium deficiency due to uneven watering. Tomato blight, another disease common to tomatoes is caused by warm, humid conditions particularly if tomato plants have not been given some support to keep foliage off the ground. Use copper or sulfur sprays to help prevent blight. Good air circulation along with proper rotation will help to prevent onset of this harmful disease.
Turnip & Rutabaga are at their best about the time other vegetables in the garden are withering. If growing turnips mainly for the tasty tops, sow thickly and don’t thin to much. Harvest turnips and rutabagas when smaller for best flavor. For a winter crop, sow in late July or early August.
“Rutabaga”, also called “swede” or “winter turnip”, is globe shaped with yellow flesh and maroon colored skin. Commonly grown for winter storage. “Summer Turnip”, is flatter in shape, and the flesh is usually white and roots are harvested during the summer.
PROPAGATION / SOWING OF TURNIPS:
Sow turnip thinly ¼ – ½” deep. Space young turnip plants to 4-6” apart in rows 24-30” apart. Sow turnip seed as early as the soil can be worked to mature crop for early market. For the main storage crop, plant turnips in late June or early July, so that roots can develop in the warmer weather. Late plantings are less susceptible to turnip root maggot damage.
COMPANION PLANTING OF TURNIPS:
Turnip do well with the Onion family and peas.
CARE & GROWING OF TURNIPS:
Turnip prefer full sun with a soil pH of 6.5. Turnip are moderate feeders; require a deep, loose cultivated soil with medium water retention. Apply generously, compost and well rotted manure prior to planting. Turnips benefit from regular feedings with a compost tea or fertilizer with higher amounts of phosphorous and potassium for good root development. Boron is a key trace element for the prevention of Brown Heart (water core). (Boron may also be applied separately as a spray 4-6 weeks after planting).
HARVESTING OF TURNIPS:
Turnips (summer): when they reach 3” in diameter. Rutabagas (winter): when roots are 4” in diameter up until they are 5-6”. You can leave your rutabagas in the ground until just before it freezes. Sweet flavor of rutabagas is enhanced by light frosts.
TURNIP PESTS & DISEASES:
Club-root can develop where turnips or cole crops have been frequently grown and will remain in the soil for 7 or more years. Club-root thrives in acidic soil, keep the soil pH above 6.0. Practice good crop rotation. Root maggots in turnips can be avoided early in the season by covering plants with row covers.